By Subba Ramaiah Kodigala (Eds.)
This booklet presents important contents concerning the fabrication and characterization of chalcopyrite Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 dependent skinny movie sun cells and modules. the expansion of chalcopyrite Cu(In1-xGax)(S1-ySey)2 absorbers, buffers, window layers, antireflection coatings, and eventually steel grids, that are the only real parts of sun cells, is obviously illustrated. The absorber, which includes a number of components, segregates secondary levels if the expansion stipulations usually are not good optimized i.e., the most challenge within the fabrication of sun cells. extra importantly the recommendations for the expansion of skinny movies are given intimately. The homes of the entire person layers and unmarried crystals together with sunlight cells analyzed by means of diverse characterization strategies comparable to SEM, AFM, XPS, AES, TEM, XRD, optical, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy are explicitly validated. analyses comparable to conductivities, corridor mobilities, deep point temporary spectroscopy measurements etc., supply a extensive photograph to appreciate skinny movies or unmarried crystals and their sunlight cells. The publication in actual fact explains the operating precept of strength conversion from sun to electric with easy sciences for the chalcopyrite dependent skinny movie sunlight cells. additionally, it demonstrates vital standards on the best way to improve potency of the sun cells and modules. The impact of environmental components similar to temperature, humidity, getting older etc., at the units is pointed out by way of bringing up a number of examples. · Illustrates a few progress thoughts to organize skinny movie layers for sun cells· Discusses characterization concepts equivalent to XRD, TEM, XPS, AFM, SEM, PL, CL, Optical measurements, and electric measurements · comprises I-V, C-V measurements illustrations· presents research of sunlight cellphone potency · offers present traits in skinny movie sun cells study and advertising and marketing
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Extra info for Cu(In: Ga)Se2 Based Thin Film Solar Cells
71, evidencing by existence of (110), (202), (114) and (310) reflections. 8. 8, if Na2Se is incorporated. An increased hole concentration is observed in the air exposure layers for several days due to chemisorptions of oxygen by Na that compensate Se vacancies in the layers. The band gap grading in the solar cells improves short circuit current because the back surface field reflects the carriers diffusing from the Mo. The quantum efficiency increases at long wavelength range. In the second stage, the incorporation of Na creates Cu vacancy that will act as acceptor.
The typical distance between source and substrate is kept to be 20 cm. Tungsten lamps with parabolic reflectors or resistive heaters are used for heating substrates to obtain temperature in the range of 175–400 C [4,5]. In a dual source evaporation to compensate loss of chalcogen (Se or S) during evaporation two resistive heated crucibles are used, one for single phase CuInSe2 charge and the other for the chalcogen. By controlling partial pressure of chalcogen either p- or n-type films can be obtained.
Frank, W. D. Meyer, G. Strorger, Z. Anorg. Aug. Chem. 271 (1953) 153. 2 Growth Process of I-III-VI 2 Thin Films The famous growth techniques for the deposition of Cu(In1ÀxGax)Se2 and CuIn (Se1ÀxSx)2 absorbers have been developed such as thermal vacuum evaporation and low-cost nonvacuum process methods, which are discussed in this chapter giving priority to former absorber. 1 Deposition of CuInSe2 There are several diversified techniques to grow semiconducting thin films, some of them are costly and others being cost effective.