By Harman D. Burck
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Extra info for Counseling and Accountability. Methods and Critique
In counseling follow-ups, for example, it might be determined 46 Selection and Sampling P r o c e d u r e s that on- and off-campus clients are highly similar in their reactions to counseling and other characteristics ; thus, the more convenient on-campus group is used in the sample. Justification for this technique implies that the results will be valuable, although more appropriate techniques could have been used. 3. Cluster Sampling This technique involves two stages. T h e investigator wants to obtain as large a sample as efficiently as possible, so he draws units into the sample in clusters rather than independently.
A n d e r s o n and A n d e r s o n (1962) have a scale for measuring rapport. T w o objective instruments purporting to measure e m p a t h y are the Kerr-Speroff E m p a t h y Scale, and Cartwright and L e r n e n s (1963) adaptation of the Kelly Role C o n s t r u c t Repertory Test. A group of scales which require the counselor-experimenter to respond to simulated counseling and therapy situations via films or taped counseling segments, are: O ' H e r n and A r b u c k l e ' s Sensitivity Scale (1964); R a n k ' s Film T e s t of Counseling Perceptions (1966); and Strupp and L u b o r s k y ' s (1962) series of brief film segments.
Kaplan (1964) suggests that the sample must be large enough to allow for gross differences among subjects to reveal themselves —that sample and population variance should be similar. H e also notes that a small sample can be an unstable one. In a similar vein, E d w a r d s and C r o n b a c h (1952) point out that a complex, multivariate study also requires a proportionately large n u m b e r of clients for any statistical validation. H o w e v e r , with a small Ν the counselor-researcher can develop new h y p o t h e s e s for future research —even if the statistical tests do not refute the null h y p o t h e s e s .