By Prasad K.K., Ray H.S., Abraham K.P.
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In practice, excess air must be used to effect complete combustion of fuel. The extra oxygen and the nitrogen accompanying it will pick up some heat during combustion, thus reducing the temperature. 3. At the temperature of combustion, there is appreciable dissociation of water vapour into hydrogen and oxygen, or hydrogen and hydroxyl and of CO2 into CO and O2. 4. Combustion process is usually a more complex chemical reaction. Often these reactions lead to the temporary formation of solid particles, which incandesce and dissipate heat by radiation.
NON-CYCLIC PROCESS What happens when the conversion of heat into work is not cyclic. Let us take only part one of operation, represented by curve AB in Fig. 2. Here Q1 heat has been taken up by the ideal gas in piston (Fig. 1) from the heat source at temperature T1. Corresponding work done is RT1ln(VB/VA). Entropy of the system (gas in piston) has increased by Q1/T1 Ä S G = Q1/T1 or, At the same time, the heat source being at the same temperature and having lost an equal amount of heat reversibly has also lost an equal amount of entropy.
This system involving chemical change can also work as a heat engine just like the previous example of physical change. The major difference in the two examples is that in the example of physical change, the process is endothermic in the forward direction, while in the chemical reaction example, the forward process is exothermic. Thus, we can see that heat engines can be conceived with not only system of an ideal gas but also with systems involving physical and chemical changes. And Carnot’s Theorem (2nd Law) holds for all such examples.