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Extra resources for Biochemistry. The Chemical Reactions of Living Cells. Vol.2
17-35). The reaction is thermodynamically unfavorable with values of ∆G’ (pH 7) ranging from ~ + 10 to 30 kJ mol –1 depending on conditions and structures of the specific compounds. Long ago, organic chemists learned that such reactions can be made to proceed by careful removal of the water that is generated (Eq. 17-35). Polysaccharides Glucose 6-P His Pentose phosphates Muramic, neuraminic acids Glyceraldehyde 3-P Erythrose 4-P ATP CO2 3 P-glycerate Ribulose 1,5-P2 Chorismate Glyoxylate Trp Prephenate Ser Arogenate Tyr Phosphoenolpyruvate Phe Gly one C units Cys Val Lactate Ile 2-Oxoisovalerate Leu Ala Purine nucleotides Acetyl-CoA Pyruvate α-Oxobutyrate CO2 Thr Asn Malonyl-CoA ATP Fatty acids Asp Homoserine Met Lys in part Oxaloacetate Succinate Pyrimidine nucleotides Citrate Polyprenyls Isocitrate ␣-Oxoglutarate Succinyl-CoA Lys in part γ-Aminobutyrate Corrins, porphins β-Hydroxy-βmethylglutaryl-CoA Malate Glyoxylate RNA, DNA Polyketides Glu Gln Pro Hydroxyproline Arg Figure 17-11 Some major biosynthetic pathways.
Part of the explanation for the complexity may depend on control mechanisms which are only incompletely understood. In some metabolic reactions pyrophosphate esters are formed by consecutive transfer of the terminal phospho groups of two ATP molecules onto a hydroxyl Ch 17IND page - E - 976 ATP C tRNA Adenylate kinase 2 ADP H O C R Activated amino acid in final form ready for protein synthesis Net: 2 ATP + amino acid + tRNA aminoacyl tRNA + 2 ADP + 2 Pi (17-36) group. , in polymerization of prenyl units (reaction type 6B, Table 10-1; Fig.
It is probably only through intermediates of this type that cleavage of ATP can be coupled to synthesis of activated groups. Such common intermediates are essential to the synthesis of ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation (Fig. 15-6). 2. Hydrolysis of Pyrophosphate The splitting of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) into two inorganic phosphate ions is catalyzed by pyrophosphatases (p. 636)150a,b that apparently occur universally. Their function appears to be simply to remove the product PPi from reactions that produce it, shifting the equilibrium toward formation of a desired compound.