best practices manual-HVAC

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1 3 Inter-fuel Substitution: Electricity Savings by Use of Absorption Chillers The economics of changeover from vapour compression system to vapour absorption system would depend on the cost of heat energy used and the relative price of electricity. It is likely to be economical in locations where waste heat or low priced heat energy sources are available. The techno-economics is highly situation specific and cannot be generalised. For new projects, use of absorption chillers can facilitate working with a lower Contract kVA Demand, smaller transformer etc.

Since the air is being supplied very close to the user, the supply air temperature settings can be raised to about 17ºC to 20ºC. The air will pick-up heat and rise into the return air plenum above the ceiling and return at a temperature of about 25ºC to 30ºC. This system can work well in dry weather or in situations where higher humidity is required or can be tolerated. The energy savings result from reduced chiller operation due to higher supply air temperature settings. The absence of ducting leads to reduced static pressure requirements and hence reduced fan power.

The fluid leaves the coil at 16ºC, enters the chiller and is cooled to 11ºC. Fig. 2: Modern Ice Storage tanks with Brine filled Plastic tubes It should be noted that, while making ice at night, the chiller must cool the water-glycol solution to -3ºCto -4ºC, rather than produce 6ºC water temperatures required for conventional air conditioning systems. This has the effect of "de-rating" the nominal chiller capacity by approximately 30 to 35 percent. Compressor efficiency, however, will vary only slightly (either better or worse) because lower nighttime temperatures result in cooler condenser temperatures and help keep the unit operating efficiently.

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