By Peter B. Stockwell
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The 1st NATO technology discussion board was once held in Biarritz in September 1990. This Taormina convention is the second one in a sequence that we want to be a protracted one and that i think that it has equalled the good fortune of its predecessor. In developing those conferences the NATO technological know-how Committee desired to assemble prime specialists to check fields of robust current curiosity.
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Additional resources for Automatic Chemical Analysis: Second Edition
These modules are coordinated with a simplified robotic arm. Several tailor-made systems have been developed which have a wide appeal and are easily configurable to particular needs. Automatic chemistry draws on a whole range of disciplines. Therefore the student of automation, or the systems designer, must be willing to use technology developed for achievements in one sector and to apply it to another area, which is often only loosely related to the first. There are therefore problems of education, communication and specification to consider.
Programmable pipetting minimizes set-up time and ensures precise, on-line sample and reagent control. This reduces the possibility of errors caused by the reagent preparation in an off-line mode. 1 µl increments while larger volumes can be varied in 1 µl increments from 0–370 µl. 2 Fig. 9 The Cobas Fara II robotic centrifugal analyser. Reproduced with permission of Roche Diagnostics. capabilities are particularly important for paediatric, geriatric and animal testing. They offer considerable reagent cost savings.
In contrast, the clinical market is fortunate in that its problems relate mainly to blood and urine, which are readily overcome compared with the problems experienced in the industrial area. This is not to say that blood and serum do not present significant matrix effects, but the number of customers with the same and/or similar problems is very large. In industrial chemistry the matrix problems vary within the industry and within the customer base. A significant problem in clinical chemistry, however, which has repercussions on the other market sectors, is that it takes a long time for an instrument to be designed, developed, evaluated and accepted into use.