By Marilyn J. Landis, Roger Garaudy
The risk and pleasure of Antarctic exploration are unrivaled within the annals of experience shuttle. Antarctica: Exploring the intense surveys 4 centuries and forty expeditions to Antarctica, recounting, frequently within the explorers' personal phrases, the wonders and the catastrophes they encountered. remarkable points of interest, hair-raising escapes, and macabre deaths from storms and scurvy attended Ferdinand Magellan's 1520 passage throughout the southern straits and Captain John Biscoe's 1830 Antarctic circumnavigation. Nineteenth-century sealing and whaling expeditions from around the globe are chronicled, and Ernest Shackleton's, Roald Amundsen's, and Robert Scott's anguishing trials of physique and spirit of their separate struggles to arrive the South Pole early within the twentieth century are distinct. a last part describes Antarctica this day, detailing the flora and fauna and geology of a sector that's drawing progressively more viewers who, just like the adventurers prior to them, are occupied with the isolation, attractiveness, and problem of the continent.
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By the time Smith returned once again to Montevideo, a group of American sealers had already heard rumors of new lands with abundant fur seals. Several of them tried to bribe Smith with lucrative promises of fabulous wealth, if only he would tell them the coordinates of the land. “Your Memorialist having the Good of his country at heart . . resisted all the offers from the said Americans,” wrote Smith. In September, Smith again veered to the south from Cape Horn. On October 15, 1819, the weather cleared and he saw a group of islands.
Drake hired four musicians to provide dinner music and took his drum to accompany them. But, ever secretive about his intentions, Drake hid a copy of Magellan’s Voyage in one of his cabin chests. On November 15, 1577, in the midst of heightened suspicions, Drake and his ﬁve ships had just sailed from Plymouth into the Channel when the worst storm in memory struck. Drake was forced to return to port for repairs. The sailors, ever sensitive to ill omens, predicted disaster for the journey, but on December 13 the ships once again sailed.
The Farm Laborer’s Son James Cook was born in 1728 in a small Yorkshire village. Although his father recognized his son’s quick mind and intuitive grasp of mathematics, educational opportunities were limited for the son of a farm laborer. So Cook worked as an apprentice in a general store in Strithes, weighing potatoes and measuring yards of cloth. As he listened to Arctic whalers and sailors spin tales of adventure, his own life must have seemed dull and full of drudgery. In the evenings, he hiked the coastal hills near the town and watched the three-masted ships sail by.