By David Banks
Using the warmth saved within the shallow subsurface for area heating (ground resource warmth) is wide-spread in North the United States and lots of ecu international locations, equivalent to Sweden, and is thought of as an important and trustworthy 'green' house heating expertise. in lots of international locations, together with Britain, the know-how is still poorly understood and lower than used. this case is set to alter, notwithstanding, with the united kingdom marketplace for floor resource warmth pumps transforming into at over a hundred% each year. This e-book bargains sensible counsel and should equip engineers, planners and geologists with the elemental abilities to evaluate and enforce this new expertise and to introduce them to the technological know-how at the back of thermogeology.
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Extra info for An introduction to thermogeology: ground source heating and cooling
G. radioactive decay of uranium and potassium in granites, or chemical oxidation of sulphides in mine waste). 4). 6. 5). 4 Schematic cross section through a three layer ‘sandwich’ of different rock types. In order to maintain a constant geothermal heat flux of, say, 70 mW m−2 , the geothermal gradient in the lower conductivity mudstone layer must be higher than in the sand layer. Therefore, temperatures at the top of the granite are higher than they otherwise would have been, given the initial geothermal gradient in the top (sand) layer.
2, p. 5), usually ultimately driven by gravitational forces. 2 kJ K−1 L−1 ). 2), causing groundwater to ﬂow towards the well, where it can be abstracted. 4). By the way, in thermogeology, we may also need to consider free convection cells that can establish themselves in groundwater (or even soil gas) within or around water wells or heat extraction boreholes. 3 Radiation All bodies radiate energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation: stars, humans, lakes and the earth’s cool surface. The hotter the body, the more energy it radiates.
The thermal conductivity describes how good the medium is at conducting heat: copper is very good, rocks are less good and plastics are generally poor. 1) that the thermal conductivities of rocks and other geological materials tend to fall within a rather narrow range, typically between 1 and 3 W m−1 K−1 . Note also that, of the common rock-forming minerals, quartz has the highest thermal conductivity, at GSHC: “gshc_03” — 2008/1/28 — 18:38 — page 37 — #5 38 An Introduction to Thermogeology around 7 W m−1 K−1 .