By Forshaw J.

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These are predicted to be 2 at tree level. You can do the one-loop calculation (it was first done by Schwinger between September and November 1947 [2]) with a few pages of algebra to find α g =2 1+ . 001165923(8). Higher order calculations show that the electron and muon magnetic moments differ at two loops and above. Kinoshita and collaborators have devoted their careers to these calculations and are currently at the four loop level. Theory and experiment agree for the electron up to the 11th decimal place!

3 Primitive divergences of qed. 4 Diagram containing a primitive divergence. This time the integral is convergent. Detailed study like this reveals that, for qed, ultraviolet divergences always cancel in relations between physically measurable quantities. We discussed above the definition of the physical electric charge eˆ. A similar argument applies for the electron mass: the Lagrangian bare mass parameter m is divergent, but we can define a finite physical mass m. 3 and are known as the primitive divergences.

9). 10) αs (µ) ≡ 4π β0 ln(µ2/Λ2 ) where Λ is a constant of integration and β0 = 32π 2 a1 . 7. If for some process the natural renormalisation scale is large, there is a chance that perturbation theory will be applicable. 11) where nf is the number of quark flavours. 6. Quarks, and other non-gauge particles, always contribute negatively to β 0 . g. providing that the number of flavours is less than or equal to 16 for qcd). 7 Running of the strong coupling constant with renormalisation scale. What is the significance of the integration constant Λ?