This guide discusses a number of platforms and the gear (components or assemblies) they contain, and describes gains and modifications. this data is helping process designers and operators in picking and utilizing gear. This variation contains a new bankruptcy 18, Variable-Refrigerant-Flow structures, which describes those platforms, their elements, and appropriate criteria intimately, and contains a approach layout instance and significant counsel on expenses, controls, and safeguard. This guide is a reference for engineers operating in HVAC&R and for execs in allied fields. ASHRAE, based in 1894, is a world association of a few 50,000 people. ASHRAE fulfills its undertaking of advancing heating, air flow, air-con, and refrigeration to serve humanity and advertise a sustainable international via examine, criteria writing, publishing, and carrying on with schooling.
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Additional info for 2012 ASHRAE Handbook - Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems and Equipment (SI Edition)
All equipment must have adequate pressure gages, thermometers, flow meters, balancing devices, and dampers for effective performance, monitoring, and commissioning. In addition, capped thermometer wells, gage cocks, capped duct openings, and volume dampers should be installed at strategic points for system balancing. Chapter 38 of the 2011 ASHRAE Handbook— HVAC Applications indicates the locations and types of fittings required. Chapter 36 of the 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals has more information on measurement and instruments.
Ensure that fencing is open to airflow so it does not adversely affect equipment performance. Air intakes should be located above street level if possible, and vents should be directed so they cannot discharge directly on passing pedestrians or into an air intake of the same or an adjacent facility. AUTOMATIC CONTROLS AND BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS One advantage of central cooling and heating plants is easier implementation of building automation because the major and ancillary equipment is consolidated in one location.
The design engineer should consider using higher temperature differences between supply and return to reduce the pump energy required by the distribution system, for both heating and chilledwater systems. , boilers, steam-to-heating-water converters, chillers) operate more efficiently with higher return water temperatures. During conceptual planning and design, or as early in design as possible, the engineer should evaluate the type(s) of existing facilities to which the central system will be connected.