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It's much healthier to opt for breads containing these seeds rather than products made from refined flour. "Populations that eat large amounts of rye have reduced risk of heart disease, diabetes and bowel cancer." The Norwegian underground succeeded in smuggling 930 Jews across The Swedish Border to safety. LIBRARY HOURS: Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday – 10 am to 3 pm. (Closed holiday weekends and if it snows.) BCGS members have free access to the Library and borrowing privileges; $5.00 a day fee for non-members.

Pages: 144

Publisher: Virago Press Ltd (August 17, 1978)

ISBN: 0860680177

Peer Gynt - with original colour illustrations by Arthur Rackham

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The Western Isles/Isle of Skye have the lowest estimated proportion of Scandinavian ancestry (17%) while Iceland has the highest (55%), but both exhibit a two-fold excess of Scandinavian patrilineal ancestry relative to Scandinavian matrilineal ancestry. The data seem to suggest that the settlement pattern of both the Western Isles/Isle of Skye and Iceland included, in addition to Scandinavian family groups, a substantial number of males who took wives from indigenous British populations , e.g. There's a Bad Time Coming: read online The shark itself is poisonous when fresh, but may be consumed after complex processing. They put it into a shallow hole, and cover with sand and gravel. They put stones on top of sand, and the stones press away the fluids from the shark, which ferments there for 6 to 12 weeks. Then the shark is cut into strips and hung to dry for a few months more. Brown crust, which develops during this period, is removed before the dish is cut into small pieces and served download. Engler's name and his thought-provoking book Die Sonne als Symbol (The Sun as a Symbol) are still little known in America, unfortunately.� he expressed the opinion that an explanation for the facts would one day be supplied by epigraphic research.� Certain easily recognizable symbols are found beside the Scandinavian ship engravings, and the identical symbols occur beside the American ones.� When Engler wrote his book, however, none of the symbols had been deciphered, and consequently the writing-- for such it appeared to be-- remained unread and mysterious.� We may speculate as to whether the Scandinavian rock engravings of ships may conceal a message unperceived by us because of the infantile aspect of the art itself. ������ One way to examine the matter is to let our mind's eye escape from the trammels of the age in which we happen to be born, and to take flight in fancy through time and space, to watch the artists at work (Figs. 191 & 192 ). ������ Our first stop is to be on the Baltic seashore at Namforsen, in the Gulf of Bothnia, in northern Sweden.� As we touch down, a Bronze Age artist has just engraved a representation of a ten-oared boat, with the crewmen represented as plain sticklike marks.� he now takes up his gouge and hammers out a bent left arm on each of two facing crewmen.� Next, to our surprise, he adds what seems an utterly irrelevant detail, a stylistic head of a horse suspended in midair (so it would seem) above the vessel's stern.� Next we take flight southward to the island of Sjaelland, in Denmark, to watch another artist at work near Engelstrup.� he has chosen to decorate a boulder.� First he carves a stylized ship, a twenty-oared vessel.� Again the crewmen are shown like vertical pegs.� he now adds two more men, one at the bow and one suspended above the other rowers.� Each of these two figures is now given a bent arm.� Next (and this time we are prepared for it) he adds a horse in midair above the stern.� Now we take flight across the Atlantic to visit one of King Woden-lithi's artists [near Peterborough, Ontario, Canada].� He, too, has cut a ship engraving, some 15 feet due east of the main sun figure.� He has cut only 6 rowers.� He now adds a larger stick figure at the bow, taking care to bend the forearm.� Last, as we expect him to do, he adds a somewhat misshapen horse, suspended over the stern. �� ����As we watch, [the Canadian engraver at Peterborough] then walks across the site to a point that lies about 12 feet southwest of the central sun figure, where other engravers have begin to lay out the figures of a zodiac.� He cuts a four-oared ship.� Beside it he engraves a man in the bow and a very pregnant woman in the stern, and above them he engraves a large ring-shaped motif.� Meanwhile, our Swedish and Danish artists have been busy.� When we return to Engelstrup we find that the Dane has added a second ship to his boulder.� Beside it, he has placed two figures, a man and a woman, and between them he has engraved a very conspicuous ring-shaped object.� As for the Swede, in his remote Bothnian fastness, when we arrive there we find he too has added a second ship, has carved a man and a pregnant woman beside it, and over their heads he has placed a ring-shaped design. ������ Now, to an epigrapher, a sequence such as just described-- and the actual engravings do exist, at the places named-- can mean only one thing: the artists in each case were following a formalistic, well-defined system of writing.� The scribes of ancient Egypt had similar procedures.� Egyptian writing depends on the use of the rebus -- a word that is easy to depict as a picture is used to indicate another word that sounds the same but that cannot be represented by a picture.� Here is the principle, as the Egyptians developed it.�� Suppose you want to write the word man or male.� That is easy, for you can make a little pictograph, a matchstick figure or a more elaborate one, depicting a man.� The reader sees a man, and is expected to read "man," as indeed he will.� But suppose you wanted to write, not man, but brother.� That is much more difficult, for no matter how accurately you depict your own or someone else's brother, the average reader (who knows neither of the persons) will just say "man."� How can you make him understand that the word intended is brother?� The Egyptian discovery lies in the fact that in the Egyptian language the word brother is pronounced like sen.� But in that language there is another, readily depictable, thing that was also called sen-- namely, a ladle.� So the solution is to draw a pictograph of a man, and then beside it place a pictograph of a ladle. ������ All that then is needed is to ensure that you teach your young people to read, and that in turn means teaching them to recognize in each word a classifier (or determinant) and a second element called the phonoglyph (sound-giver).� In the word brother the man picture is the classifier, telling the reader that the word has something to do with male human beings, and the ladle picture is the phonoglyph, telling the reader that the male human has a name that sounds like sen. ������ When Professor Fell lived in Copenhagen he became acquainted with Icelanders, whose language has preserved most of the features of Old Norse.� They delight in word play and also are noted for the high proportion of poets in their population.� One whom he knew used to invent risqu� punning games to tease some innocent party.� He would first dream up some complicated pun in Danish and then make me say what appeared to be a harmless statement, the others present waiting breathless to see what would result.� When Fell knew the words, he would then say, "Faster, say it more quickly," whereupon the entire room would dissolve in laughter.� To Fell�s innocent inquiry he would then be told that, by saying the words faster, he had made them run together to form a totally different and usually quite obscene statement: one of those Old Norse customs for whiling away the long winter nights along the Arctic Circle.� In Polynesia Fell encountered similar customs, there called riddles and taken very seriously by some anthropologists whose knowledge of the language was too slight to enable them to realize the traps they were led into.� Entire articles appear in the Journal of the Polynesian Society in which the unwary authors have reproduced scores of the most scurrilous material, thinly disguised as something different by dividing the words in different places.� These so-called riddles were also a means of passing the long evenings.� Also, tribal lore deemed to be too sacred for ordinary ears can be concealed in complex puns that the uninitiated does not fully comprehend. ������ With these experiences in mind, and knowing now as we do that the language spoken by the Bronze Age engravers of Scandinavia and Ontario is a Norse language, we can test whether the inconsequential assemblages of horses in midair, men with bent arms, and rings gazed upon by male and female matchstick figures may be written puns, like ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs.� The test, of course, is to utter aloud the names of the depicted objects in sequence. ������ Since the Danish example carries both of the statements on the same stone, one above the other, we will use that one. ������ "In English we have: (reading each line from left to right): ������ English:� People, arms bent, and a horse.� A man and a woman at a ring gaze. ������ Norse:� Menneskjor, olna kviesand'ok hrossr.� Ok mann ok kvinna't hring da. ������ Homophone:� Menne kjol-nakvi Suna dagi hrossa, ok man-nokvi natt hrinda. ������ English:�� Men to the keeled sun-ship at dawn give praise, and to the moon-ship at her night launching. ���� Thus, the seemingly childish pictures are readily seen to be not pictures, but hieroglyphs.� They seemed to be examples of Stone Age writing, poetic and religious, hallowed by centuries of use before the Bronze Age and carefully preserved intact as historic and religious expressions of piety from a former age. ������ By treating the messages of the Bronze Age as literal and childish, we have completely failed to interpret the true sense they impart.� The rock-cut petroglyphs deserve the close attention of linguists, who may be expected to produce more perfect interpretations than those that can be offered.� Often linguists are prone to spend so much time splitting hairs over dictionary-authorized spellings and grammatical niceties that they often forget that ancient peoples had no dictionaries, no written standards of spelling, and that the grammar of each hamlet and village was likely to deviate from that of its neighbors. ������ Before going further with the account of Norsemen exploration in the far northern seas we should pause to take note of events in the Mediterranean world at the onset of the twelfth century BC.� These were turbulent times in the southern lands, where violent attacks by a mysterious group of raiders referred to as the Sea Peoples laid in ruins the Aegean civilization and even threatened the very survival of the Egyptian monarchy.� Egypt at this time was ruled by one of the most powerful of the Pharaohs, Ramesses III, who reigned from 1188 to 1165 BC. ����� Only the smoke-stained ruins now remain to speak mutely of the onslaught that suddenly struck down the peaceful trading empire of the Aegean peoples who fell victims to the raiders from the sea.� In Egypt a stout and effective resistance was made against the pirates, adequate warning having no doubt reached the Nile Delta when the disasters occurred in the archipelago to the north of Egypt.�� As to what happened next, we are almost wholly dependent upon Egyptian records carved at Medinet Habu to memorialize the defeat by Ramesses III of the Libyans and Sea Peoples in 1194 and 1191 BC., and a final attack in 1188 BC. by yet one more wave of Sea Peoples, this time not from Libya but from the east.� In the bas-reliefs that depict the naval battles ( Fig. 193 ), the defeated Sea Peoples are represented as having a European cast of face.� Some of them are shown wearing hemispherical helmets that carry two recurved upward-directed horns.� For other clothing they wear a kilt.� Their weapons are swords and spears, whereas the Egyptian marines are armed with bows and arrows, and are shown able to attack the invaders with a fusillade before the Sea Peoples could come near enough to board the Egyptian vessels.� According to Ramesses III, the defeated remnants of these invaders fled westward to Libya .� Two centuries later the descendants of the invaders seized power in Egypt, reigning as the XXII or Libyan dynasty for a span of 200 years. ������ The suggestion has already been made by other writers that the Sea peoples may have included Norsemen sailors, largely because the monument at Medinet Habu depicts some of them as men that look like Vikings.� Fell expressed a view that the inscriptions have forced upon him:� that it is very probable that the Sea Peoples included substantial naval detachments from the Baltic region, that their language was a Norse dialect of the Indo-European family, that the so-called " Libyan " alphabet is in fact an alphabet of Norsemen, or at least northern European origin, and that it was taken to Libya by the defeated Sea Peoples who survived the Battle of the Nile .� For some reason the alphabet they introduced has continued in use throughout subsequent Libyan history, whereas in its northern homeland it died out, to be replaced by runes.� Fell hazarded the guess that the blond Tuaregs who clung most tenaciously to the "Libyan" alphabet are probably descended from Norsemen immigrants around the time of the Sea Peoples' invasions.� All these proposals may seem bold inferences, but there seemed� little in the way of plausible alternatives in the light of these new finds of supposed Libyan inscriptions in Europe. ������ It is, after all, a question of relative motion.� We thought at first that Libyan voyagers had traveled to Scandinavia, to leave their script there as a calling card.� It now seems that the script is Norse, and that Norsemen ships and crews carried it to Libya, where it survived."� Recent articles in National Geographic Magazine, confirm the possibility that Norsemen peoples brought writing to Mediterranean lands in prehistoric times.� Barry Fell�s suggestion that Egypt might have had intense contact with North America is strongly supported by the huge boats, which were discovered in 1950 adjacent to Khufu�s great pyramid.� They were buried between 2589 and 2566 B , cited: Little Star read epub read epub.

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