Early Polemical Writings (Kierkegaard's Writings, Vol. 1)

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I ordered the skagen sandwich and it was fantastic. Author retains the right to use his/her article for his/her further scientific career by including the final published journal article in other publications such as dissertations and postdoctoral qualifications provided acknowledgement is given to the original source of publication. Universal free education allows students of all backgrounds to achieve their potential.

Pages: 352

Publisher: Princeton University Press (July 1, 1990)

ISBN: 0691073694

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For example, suppose we just had three populations: X, Y, and Z , e.g. Folk-Lore and Legends Scandinavian http://srs-it.ru/books/folk-lore-and-legends-scandinavian. Boxed sets of cod, chips and mushy peas (or other side sauce) are priced Y1300-1500, and everything can be... Over the past five years, Scandinavia has entered a golden age (of sorts) in television. That’s not to say that their television has ever been particularly bad, per say, but recently these countries – particularly Denmark – have offered some of the most original, challenging and engaging shows around (typically dark, atmospheric police procedurals) Lowenskold Ring (Norvic Press read here http://portretdevoluntar.provobis.ro/library/lowenskold-ring-norvic-press-series-a. 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Vastokas entitled Sacred Art of the Algonkians (Mansard Press, 1973).� The latter work is meticulous in the accurate portrayal of the inscriptions, in their present eroded state, though the authors did not then recognize the inscribed alphabets or record them as such.� The important fact is that professional anthropologists such as the Vastokas team found and recorded the inscriptions and reported that they must date back to a period before the historical occupation of the region by the Hurons and later by Iroquois .� In other words, the inscriptions could not be modern features, and must date back to the era of Algonquian occupation, which came to an en some five centuries ago. ������ Joan and Romas Vastokas recognized apparent Scandinavian and Bronze Age features in the art style.� They pointed out that the ships depicted in the inscription are shown in the European manner, with animal figure heads and stern tailpieces, features totally unknown to Algonquian, or indeed in any American Indian, art.� They, and other archaeologists, noticed the strange similarities of the central sun-god figure. and associated motifs to corresponding solar deities of Europe, especially the Bronze Age petroglyphs of Scandinavia.� Other characteristic Scandinavian features that their photographs and drawings record are such elements of Norsemen mythology as the maiming of the god of war by the Fenrir wolf....., the conspicuous short-handled hammer, Mjolnir, of Thunor (Thor of the Norsemen), and Gungnir, the spear of Woden....., both of which were imitated many times over by the Algonquian artists who later occupied the site.� Thus, the purely objective reports made by the Vastokases who sought only to record what they discovered, without attaching any interpretation other than that appropriate for Algonquian art, have an added value and importance for us now, for they observed the material as it was uncovered from the soil and placed it on permanent record in their photographs, charts, and descriptions.� As a result of the initial discoveries, the whole site was set aside as a public part and protected by an enclosure. ������ Thus, the primary evidence still exists and is open for public inspection under circumstances that prevent the possible vandalization of the site.� The only disturbing feature is that, since the inscriptions were exposed to the air, after removal of the covering soil that had protected them, the action of frost and acid rain has caused a gradual deterioration of the surface of the limestone.� Unless steps are taken to impregnate the bedrock with a stabilizer, such as silicone, the precious record may soon melt away into unreadable markings, as part indeed already had before the site had been found. ������ The actual discovery should be noted here.� It occurred on May 12, 1954, and was made by three geologists, Ernest Craig, Charles Phipps, and Everitt Davis, in the course of fieldwork on mining claims.� The following day, "Nick" Nickels, a photographer-journalist of the Peterborough Examiner, visited the site, and so began the first modern records of it.� Paul Sweetman of the University of Toronto undertook the first research at the site in July 1954, recording nearly a hundred petroglyphs.� Sweetman's report indicated a possible age as great as 3,500 years or as young as 400 years.� His upper limit, 3,500 years, is in agreement with the epigraphic evidence as given in this book.� Tens of thousands of visitors now come to the site each year, using the access road and other facilities that have been erected for their benefit.� it has become a major center of archaeological interest for the whole of North America, and all Americans are grateful to the Canadian authorities for having seen to it that the ancient petroglyphs are protected yet open to all visitors. ������ The Vastokases, like most archaeologists in North America, felt obliged to explain all American petroglyphs as being the work of native Amerindian artists.� Despite their, and others' perception of the similarities to Scandinavian petro9glyphs of the Bronze Age, the idea that any connection might have existed between North America and Scandinavia in the Bronze Age, some 3,500 years ago, seemed preposterous.� So they were faced with remarkable parallels, yet they elected to explain them as no more than chance similarities brought about by a shamanistic view of the sky as a kind of sea on which the sun and the moon sailed their ships to cross the heavens each day. ������ In treating the inscriptions in this way, they were following the example of other distinguished anthropologists and archaeologists who had investigated North American petroglyphs.� The leading researcher during the last several decades had been Professor Robert Heizer of the University of California.� He was vehement in his rejection of all theories that America had been visited in pre-Columbian times by voyagers from Europe, Africa, or elsewhere, and he chose to view all American petroglyphs as the products of Amerindians.� He did take account of age-determination techniques, such as those dependent on carbon-dating of materials found in caves where petroglyphs occur and the evidence provided by the oxidation of rocks, especially in dry climates such as eastern California, Nevada, and Arizona.� These methods enabled Heizer to set dates of up to five thousand years ago for some petroglyphs.� As for me, at the time when the Ontario petroglyphs were discovered, Fell had just completed a comprehensive Scandinavian journey and had visited many of the famous inscriptions of Sweden and Denmark, though he was still a long way from recognizing the Tifinag alphabet at any Bronze Age petroglyph site beyond the shores of North Africa. ������ Fell�s subsequent work on Tifinag led to the gradual decipherment of the ancient language of Libya and, after various Libyan scholars visited me at Harvard, Fell was invited to lecture on the Tifinag inscriptions at the universities of Tripoli and Benghazi.� Just before leaving for North Africa in 1977, Fell had received from Otto Devitt the first of what were to be a continuing series of photographs he made for me of the petroglyphs at Peterborough.� Although he could see that the site included Tifinag letters, the words they formed seemed to have no discernible connection with the language of ancient Libya, and he was forced to put the slides aside while undertaking other assignments. �� ����In the interim Fell read some of Heizer's reports on the petroglyphs of eastern California and Nevada, and recognized that they included Tifinag and Kufi (early Arabic).� A particularly striking case is the petroglyph in Owens Valley, California, that depicts the entire zodiac, in the form it had before the third century BC, together with a Kufi inscription explaining that the New Year is determined at the time of the vernal equinox, when the sun enters the constellation of the Ram.� One of Dr ref.: Johanne, 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Imanol Agiŕe, the Basque etymologist and epigrapher.� he confirmed the decipherment and provided a modern Basque rendering of the same text.� (This, of course, is in marked contrast to the views of those archaeologists who state that the Basque inscriptions found in America are marks made by roots or by plowshares.� For the views of linguistic scholars on the one hand, and archaeologists on the other, reference may be made to volume 9 of the Epigraphic Society's Occasional Publications, entitled Epigraphy Confrontation in America [1981]).� A possible means of Iberian influence on the Norsemen settlements in Canada may have been the Algonquians.� For, as an inscription cut on Woden-lithi's site shows, the actions of the Norsemen colonists were of interest to the Algonquians, and an inscription in a language similar to Ojibwa, using the Basque (and therefore the Cree-Ojibwa) syllabary (see Table 3 ), makes reference to Woden-lithi's departure by ship.� As already noted, Woden-lithi's relations with the Algonquians appear to have been cordial, and he refers as a "foreign-friend" ( Fig. 20 )to one whom he has carved. ������ The beliefs and practices referred to in this [section], worship of the sun and moon and worship of animals, appear all to derive from the Stone Ages and were doubtless a direct carryover from the late Neolithic. ������ But the Indo-European farmers who occupied Scandinavia toward the close of the Stone Age, and who are believed by Scandinavian archaeologists to be the direct ancestors of Bronze Age peoples in Scandinavia, were practical country people who perceived the sun as a supreme deity on whom the fertility of their crops depended, since only by planting seed at times determined by the position of the sun in the constellations could they be assured of success in reaping a harvest."� [It is of interest that Fell (1982) does not indicate farming practices among the Norsemen colonists in America.� The evolution of observatories in their culture in Scandinavia might have been related to farming, but such observatories also fulfilled other functions, such as when good sailing seasons are available, etc.]. ������ For their more personal needs they apparently evolved a whole pantheon of lesser deities.� As the Bronze Age progressed, these lesser gods gradually assumed the role of major gods, and eventually the sun and the moon and the rest of nature were assigned by the priests to the lesser roles of servants of the new gods.� For the Norsemen peoples the leading members of the new pantheon were all sky gods.� The new religion had already developed clearly defined roles for these gods, and in that capacity they accompanied Woden-lithi to America, as his presiding patrons. ������ Based on a translation of inscriptions in America, Fell (1982) proposes a hypothetical scenario of further migrations by Bronze Age peoples on the American continent:� ������ Although both the ancient peoples of Ireland and the Norsemen Teutons venerated the sun god above all others during the Bronze Age, the former calling him by the name Bel or Grian, the latter Sol or Sunu, each of these peoples recognized a host of lesser gods.� These deities seem to have originated as spirits of nature, each in charge of particular natural manifestations, and later some of them were elevated to become major gods. ������ Thus Lug to the ancient Irish was a god of light, who repelled the forces of darkness with his mighty spear.� The Norsemen people apparently assigned much the same characteristics to Woden or Odin, who also owned a mighty spear and dealt destruction to the enemies of gods and men.� Both ancient Irish and Norsemen recognized a sky god who was named for thunder:� Taranis in ancient Irish, Thunor or Thor in Norse.� Both had divinities in charge of war, of music, of writing skills and magic, and, especially, fertility, both male and female. ������ In America something happened that did not and could not happen in Europe.� Relatively isolated and defenseless settlements of Irish and Norsemen Teutons came into accidental and basically friendly contact.� Inevitably there were intermarriages, and each side imparted its ideas to the other.� Thus arose a peculiarly American blending of European concepts, which later permeated Amerindian thinking, as intermarriages became more extensive. ������� When the people from Ireland and Scandinavia crossed the Atlantic to settle in America they brought their gods with them.� In the northeastern settlements, where native rock abounded, they built religious centers in the megalithic style.� Some of the chambers still carry ogam inscriptions indicating the name of the god or goddess of the dedication (.....see Fig. 168 ).� In most cases the original inscriptions are now unreadable or totally effaced by time and weather.� As centuries went by, and the Ancient Irish people or their Creole descendants dispersed across the continent, their concepts changed with the changing environment.� In the Northeast the mother goddess was conceived as a female figure resembling the Punic Tanith, also as a nude image.� On the prairies the mother goddess is represented as an Amerindian woman who�s fringed clothes spell out in ogam her name and titles.� Where there were no rocks, no stone chambers could be built, and they and the other megalithic structures all but vanish as we pass beyond the Great Lakes. ������ Chief of the Ancient Irish gods was Lug, god of the sky and of light, and creator of the universe.� His emblems are his spear and his slingshot.� With the latter he once destroyed a one-eyed monster named Balar, who, with his sorcerer attendants the Fir-bolg, had gained the mastery of Ireland.� Balar is depicted in an unlettered inscription on the Milk River, near Writing-on-Stone, Alberta.� He is shown as having one leg and one arm, held aloft over his gigantic eye, which could kill hundreds merely by its glance.� In this pictograph, Fig. 93, Lug has just loosed the thong of his slingshot and the monster is about to die.� Another and evidently much later depiction of Lug is that in Fig. 92, where his name is given in Norse runes, one of many examples we now have of Norsemen influence on the western Irish in North America.� Presumably the Norsemen came down from Hudson Bay to enter the prairie lands. �In this Petroglyph Lug is shown holding his magic spear, by means of which he defeats the forces of darkness each year, to usher in the returning spring.� The last-mentioned petroglyph occurs on cliffs at Castle Gardens in Wyoming, and at the same site another Ancient Irish god is identified by his name written in Norse runes.� This is Mabona (or Mabo ), the Irish Apollo, god of music and of sports and the presiding divinity in charge of male fertility.� In this context his symbol is the phallus, shown in the petroglyph on the rock above him. ������ The Punic traders of Iberia brought to America the coinage of Carthage and other Semitic cities, and these coins often depict a horse (the emblem of Carthage), or just its head and neck, or a Pegasus with wings but without the rest of the animal's body.� Since there were no horses in the Americas at that epoch, the Ancient Irish had vague and strange ideas as to what kind of animal it might be, apparently able to fly like a bird, yet resembling a deer in other respects.� They sometimes carved representation of their gods or heroes riding on this magic animal of the skies," and often birds' feet replace the hoofs.� "The body may resemble a boat, while the mane and tail provide the fringe ogam required to give a title to the composition.� In this respect the American Irish copied exactly the conventions of the minters of Spain, forming the word C-B-L or G-B-L (for capull, horse), and in the case of a Pegasus, adding the suffix -n (ean, meaning "flying").�� Some of these flying heroes mounted on Pegasus-back may be intended for Norsemen Valkyries, other have the name Mabona or Mabo-Mabona incorporated in the ogam of the tail. ������ The god of knowledge, especially astronomy, astrology, and occult sciences, and of writing skills, was Ogmios .� He is always represented as having a face like the sun, and sometimes he carries rods that spell G-M, the consonants of the word ogam. ������ In later centuries, long after the time of Woden-lithi and his colonists, the descendants of the Norsemen settlers began to migrate westward, to reach the Great Plains and, ultimately the West Coast from British Columbia southward to an undetermined distance.� They also encountered other Amerindian tribes, especially the many Dakota tribes, usually now referred to as Sioux.� With the passage of time these communities all blended, and so a part of the Norsemen heritage was introduced into the Amerindian tradition. ������ While these events were occurring, a similar westward migration took place among the Irishiberian (noted as Celtiberian) colonists who had originally occupied much of New England and also part of the southeastern states.� These ancient people from Ireland likewise reached the Plains, and they too blended with the Sioux tribes and the Shoshone.� They also had a predominant influence in forming the Takhelne people of British Columbia.� These people from Ireland spread southward along the Pacific coast, through Oregon and much of California, where their ogam inscriptions are often to be found in excellent states of preservation. ������ Inevitably the two religious traditions, Norse on the one hand, Ancient Irish on the other, both of them expressions of the original Indo-European pantheon, blended to produce a composite mythology.� Thus we find Norsemen heroes depicted in what appear to be Ancient Irish roles and vice versa.� These blended traditions persisted into modern times, and there were still artists painting ogam texts beneath Norsemen mythological subjects as late as the first decades of the nineteenth century. ������ All the foregoing inferences are attested to by the inscriptions.� In localities such as the Milk River in Alberta, where inscriptions in ogam abound, the bedrock is so soft that the inscriptions cannot be many centuries old.� Some declare their [recent origin] by incorporating depictions of Royal Canadian Mounted Police, or colonists with rifles-- scattered incongruously among petroglyphs that depict the old Norsemen gods and heroes. ������ It is clear that a tradition of sculpting replicas of still older petroglyphs must have persisted for thousands of years, and it is very probable that many of the artists whose work we now admire and whose ogam texts we can still recognize may not themselves have really understood what it was that they had been trained to sculpt.� Perhaps, like the Egyptian carvers of Roman times, they merely knew that they were repeating old and hallowed texts from their remote ancestors, the meaning no longer known to them. ������ Whether this was so or not, the Amerindians have disclosed little of what lies behind their traditional art, or have cloaked it behind a disguise of later-invented myths.� And as for the inscriptions, many of those that are still readable as ancient ogam cannot possibly have been cut in ancient times.� They represent a fossil art, preserved intact from another age.� We can be grateful to those artists who thus preserved the remote past for us in this way. ���� King Woden-lithi gives a concise summary of his pantheon of gods, which (like Snorri's Edda) he separates into the Aesir or sky gods and the Wanir or earth gods. ����� "Chief of Norsemen sky gods is Woden of the great spear Gungnir and, as stated above, he has much the same characteristics as Lug of the Gaelic Irish (noted as Celts) and Lew of the Brythonic Irish.� He presides over magic and owns a magic ring that Loki, his son, had made for him. ������ His magic spear is carved many times at Peterborough, some of the larger versions being perhaps the work of Algonquians copying from smaller originals.� In one example ( Fig. 96 & Fig. 97 ), located about 18 feet west of the main sun figure, the letters GN-GN� N-R are written:� Gnugnir, the Ontario version of Gungnir, by which name Odin's spear was known to the Vikings of a later age.� These and other inscriptions show that the mythology of Odin in Viking times is fundamentally just a more elaborate development of the mythology of the Norsemen peoples generally in the much earlier era of King Woden-lithi. ������ Woden himself is depicted as a male figure just to the right of Gungnir ( Fig. 96 & Fig. 97 ).� His name is written W-D-N, Woden, in the English and Germanic form of his name. ������ About 14 feet south of the main sun figure another of Woden's possessions is depicted ( Fig. 103 ).� This is a peculiar forked tree, identified as W-GH� D-R-S-I-L, Ughdrasil, matching the world-tree of the Vikings, called Yggdrasil.� The name is supposed to mean "Ugly Horse" and its link with the tree is obscure. ������ Woden was also regarded as the god who presided over the dead, with feasting and other pleasures of the flesh for warriors who died in battle.� His assistants in bringing in the bodies of the slain for restoration to life, were the Valkyries.� There has not yet been observed any reference to this mythology on the Peterborough site, but Fig. 94 � & Fig. 95 suggest that the myth of the Valkyries was imparted to the American migrants from Ireland.� The inscriptions depicting these strange riders of flying steeds were cut in nearly modern times by western plainsmen, probably Sioux, who had inherited the Norsemen tradition."

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